The Experts

Andrew Main
+ About Andrew Main

About Andrew Main

Andrew Main has spent 35 years in journalism and stockbroking, which took him from Perth to Sydney, Paris and London. He was Business Editor of The Australian between 2007 and 2009.

He was a joint winner of the Gold Walkley Award, Australia's top journalism prize, in 2003 for a series of articles on errant stockbroker Rene Rivkin's Swiss bank accounts and he has published two books, one on the collapse of HIH insurance and the other a biography of Rivkin. He had a regular spot on ABC 702 for five years in Sydney explaining the mysteries of finance to a mid-morning audience.

More recently, he has also been a regular commentator on Sky Business

Returns better than cash in the bank?

Wednesday, October 09, 2019

As retail investors increasingly despair of the lousy interest rates they are getting from their banks, one particular type of product is enjoying retail market attention: the fixed interest Listed Investment Trust (LIT) or Listed Investment Company (LIC).

What they are aiming to offer is a low risk, easily tradeable product that provides annual returns of anything between four and eight per cent, depending on the fund’s structure.

The big plus of fixed interest, which in bull equity markets tends to be missed by investors, is that the bonds or loans on which it is based all have to be paid back at a legally contracted date in the future, which is more than you can say for equities. A cynic might say equities are designed on a “climb in and hang on” basis. 

We’re not going to be swamped by these fixed interest products any time soon, not least because there’s a growing list of would-be listers still waiting to get the tick-off from the regulator ASIC.

And it’s worth remembering that the fixed interest market in Australia is twice the size of the equity market and the latter is currently capitalised at about $2 trillion.

So how does one of these Listed fixed interest entities work?

In short, they are a device that allows retail investors to get access to a market that until recently has been pretty much the exclusive preserve of institutions such as pension funds, insurance companies and professional wholesale fund managers.

The LICs and LITs differ merely in their structure but not their intent: both are collective investment vehicles that have to adhere to the ASX Listing Rules. Trusts pay distributions (indeed they are obliged to pay out all profits as distributions) and LICs are companies that pay dividends.

Until recently, it has been something of a closed door to retail investors because it’s basically a market where you need $100,000 just to get in the door.

That wasn’t a result of any policy of exclusivity so much as the fixed interest market’s origins. It started out as a way for governments to raise money to pay for infrastructure etcetera and it particularly attracted the big players because of the tight margins and the relative security of a bond that always gets paid at the far end whether it is a two-year, five-year, 10-year or even 30-year bond.

It helped that insurance companies were obliged by law to invest at least a certain percentage of their premium income in government bonds.

The fixed interest market has now spread far further out into the corporate world and, without going significantly up the risk curve, investors can now easily find themselves enjoying yields two or three times that of government bonds, which now offering a yield of around 2% — and dropping.

Aside from government borrowing, the fixed interest market offers higher risk (but still remarkably low-risk) products such as corporate bonds. They are issued by big companies such as News Corporation on the basis that if you’re big enough to issue your own bonds, you don’t need to worry about borrowing from the banks.

And above the corporate bond market, also known and the commercial paper market, is what’s called the corporate loan market.

How risky is that? According to the major banks, which until recently had the corporate loan market pretty much to themselves, loss rates in Australia have averaged 0.32 of 1% over the last 10 years.

The Australian Bureau of Statistics says the overall corporate borrowing market  is worth in excess of $950 billion in Australia but only a small part of that, some $43 billion, is represented by corporate bonds.

The rest is what’s called the corporate loan market, which for years was dominated by the big four banks.

Companies that are too small to issue their own bonds but which have a good credit rating have in recent years done a lot more borrowing from intermediaries, having concluded that the rates charged by the Big Four banks, which can sometimes exceed ten per cent, are higher than they can get elsewhere.

Corporate loans are loans made to businesses bigger than SMEs for a specific purpose such as working capital, capital expenditure and acquisitions.

One such intermediary is a Sydney organisation called Metrics Credit Partners, which launched an LIT on the ASX in 2017 called the MCP Master Income Trust .

The Trust has slices of more than 100 corporate loans, which means that investors in the Trust are automatically well diversified.

You can see there’s a lot of room in the debt market for investors to be the effective providers of loans to qualifying businesses, with the extra benefit conferred by these new listed entity that the investor isn’t just putting all their money on one horse.

What other risks are there to consider? Anything you buy on the ASX has market risk, and if there’s a major drop in the equity market, LICs and LITs will be carried down with it, to some extent.

But the LICs and LITs are closely tied to their Net Asset Value or NAV. Even now you will find equity LICs that are trading at a 10 per cent discount to their NAV but if you buy them, you’re effectively buying a dollar for 90 cents.

It would be a stretch to say LICs and LITs are market-proof but in the same way that their prices won’t go zooming up in a bull market, they won’t crash in a bear market.

Because unlike equities, they are based on a promise to pay the lender back eventually.


Should listed companies work with activists?

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Where do you stand on the debate about how much listed companies should work with activists?

This thorny issue came up in a recent interview in the AFR magazine with BHP chief executive Andrew Mackenzie, who made it clear that his mining company is onside with a lot of activism about climate change, for instance.

Not long afterwards, Treasurer Josh Frydenberg bought into the debate, essentially saying it’s a company’s job to make money for its shareholders, and it’s the government’s job to create an environment where that can happen.

He didn’t use the phrase “stay in your lane” but that’s the new buzz phrase from people who agree with Josh. You can probably also throw in “virtue signalling” as part of the Josh supporters’ armoury of pet phrases, on the basis that they believe it’s grandstanding when you start any talk about making the world a better place.

The Mackenzie article noted that BHP is nowadays buying into issues like indigenous rights, climate policy and gender diversity.

Who’s right?

If you ever choose to look at the comments section attached to stories in The Australian on the subject, you’d conclude that the single overriding aim of companies should be to make money for their shareholders, with all other considerations being not only irrelevant but also perhaps a kowtow to dangerous lefty notions.

It’s a reality that corporate life used to be a lot simpler: companies made things and built things, miners mined, and hopefully exported as much as possible and even paid a reasonable amount of tax. Case closed, the old brigade might say.

Mackenzie, meanwhile, noted to the AFR that he had never felt a tension between his fiduciary duty and his ability to make a positive impact on society through his work.

“One way you can get a little bit off the hook of the fiduciary duty is to say, for example, we are running this company for the benefit of both current shareholders and future shareholders,” he was quoted saying in the article.

BHP’s position, for instance, is that it doesn’t want to open any more thermal coal mines than the ones it has already in New South Wales and Colombia, which are up for sale.

That’s where you can see where Mackenzie’s futurology and the hard realities of capitalism actually align: global demand for thermal coal is dropping as coal fired power stations close and aren’t replaced, so it makes economic as well as ecological sense to wind that part of the business down.

It’s logical to assume most Scottish CEOs have a fair understanding of what profitable activity looks like.

What’s mightily clear to him and to a lot of people who don’t automatically cheer for coal is that there’s a lot of reputational risk at stake here, no matter what coal supporters choose to say. And that public opinion is moving his way.

A recent survey by the Sydney Daily Telegraph, for instance, revealed that almost two thirds of responders believed humans are responsible for climate change, and that two thirds believe Australia should have a national target of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.

Plus, 81% of responders said they were concerned about more droughts and flooding caused by climate change.

It’s likely that climate sceptics weren’t big responders to the survey but on the other side of the coin, Rupert Murdoch’s Sydney Daily Telegraph is hardly a hotbed of dangerous lefty chatter. The climate debate has gone firmly mainstream, from the recent very well attended school strike level right up to and including The Economist’s latest edition, which devoted most of an entire issue’s coverage to the issue.

The UK based magazine summed up its position on the topic by noting that “Climate change touches everything this newspaper reports on. It must be tackled urgently and clear-headedly”.

But before they take issue with the magazine, sceptics should note that The Economist was careful not to say the sky is falling in. That’s a canny nod to the people in the middle, who believe climate change is real but who feel, correctly or not, that the issue has been overblown.

“It is important to understand all the things that climate change is not,” it notes. “It is not the end of the world. Humankind is not tottering on the edge of extinction. The planet itself is not in peril,” it states, adding that “climate change is, though, a dire threat to countless people’’ by variously flooding places and drying up wells, damaging crops, melting glaciers etcetera.

The good news for shareholders, meanwhile, is that a lot of the companies they are invested in can’t really do a great deal to limit climate change. Service companies, for instance, which make up a growing percentage of ASX listings, can recycle more rubbish and economise on travel but they can’t remake themselves. But airlines, for instance, can and do do a great deal to reduce their carbon footprint, testing new biofuels and doing more to reduce waste.

That sort of approach collided head on last week with Prime Minister Scott Morrison and assistant minister Ben Morton, who took the long handle to businesses they said campaigned on what they described as “so-called activist issues.”

“Too often, big businesses have been in the frontline on social issues, but missing in action when arguing for policies, which would grow jobs and the economy,” said minister Morton.

That got a strong response from Qantas CEO Alan Joyce and Virgin CEO Paul Scurrah, who last week happened to be campaigning to reduce the monopolistic fees charged by Australia’s bigger airports. (Another issue that’s not related to climate change).

“We have to do both,” said Mr Joyce, referring to making profits and planning for a more global approach to governance.

“We’re not going to pull back on what we say on social issues because that’s important to our employees, our customers, and our shareholders,” he added, noting that Generations Y and Z now comprise 50% of the workforce and 80% of them say they want to work for a company with a social conscience.

I’d say we haven’t heard the last of that debate about companies pushing activist causes.

There’s a further point on the other side of the coin that has barely had the chance to surface in recent weeks, and that’s the whole issue of how big groups of people with strongly held views are now getting together to cause companies to change their policies.

Again, this isn’t a climate change issue, but it’s certain to loom larger in the activism debate. Just look at the effect of a social media campaign against 2GB Radio breakfast shock jock Alan Jones by two social media organisations, one with the interesting name of Mad F***ing Witches. It was apparently based on an careless comment by immigration minister Peter Dutton.

They tackled not Jones but the advertisers on his show on the issue of misogyny  and within a short time no less than 24 advertisers had pulled out of the show. It was so effective that 2GB management is currently conducting “a full review” of Jones’s show, on the clear but unexpressed basis that if the advertisers bail, Jones may find himself on much thinner ice than before.

What’s clear is that until that grassroots campaign, Jones was remarkably safe because the sheer weight of advertising dollars closed down debate.

Not anymore. Employees and consumers are now firmly on the march on a range of hot button issues and companies will have the choice of either trying to beat them, or join them.  Because of the explosion in social media, the latter course now looks a lot more likely to succeed in the long run.


“I’m not dead”

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

For several years now, the general view was that bricks and mortar retailing in Australia was headed for the scrapheap and then Myer came back by turning a $500 million annual loss into a $24.5 million profit in the latest year.

Myer’s long been regarded as the local basket case, not helped by substantial shareholder (just over 10%) Solly Lew explaining to everyone who’ll listen that he knows how to do things better. He may well know but at least he seems to have gone quiet for the moment. His comments tend to send a dire message to investors.

What’s clear is that things aren’t as simple as the pessimists thought. Both Myer and rival David Jones (now owned by the South African Woolworths group) have adopted the sensible tactic of shrinking the amount of  floor space they’re renting and locking horns with landlords over possible rent reductions on what’s left. They’re both talking about cutting space by 20%.

They call that shrinking your way to profitability but in Myer’s case it’s clearly starting to work.

But the quirk seems to be that they’re not ditching the most expensive floor space, they’re cutting back in regional cities where the floor traffic has never been comparably high. So they can’t just blame rents for their struggles.

A gloomy thought is that according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the cost of necessities, such as electricity and groceries, has been rising faster than the cost of discretionary purchases, such as clothing and electronics, so you could posit the notion that the people out in regional areas are now going to be even worse served on the low-inflation goods than they were before, while no doubt paying up further for necessities.

The sense of humour of the people living in drought affected areas must now be even more sorely stretched: gadgets are comparatively cheaper than necessities.

No wonder so many of them wear flannies and Blunnies.

Of course, we all need clothes but there’s another quirk happening: international luxury brands are expanding their premises in the big cities while a number of local clothing and footwear businesses are closing their doors. For instance Tiffany, Gucci and Chanel are either taking or planning to have extra space in Sydney’s CBD while local retailers Roger David, Napoleon Perdis Cosmetics, Ed Harry, Shoes of Prey and Beds R Us have all closed down this year.

There’s always going to be turnover in the retail space, partly because there’s often more enthusiasm than retail savvy being brought to bear.  I’m not aiming here at the outfits that have closed. How many coffee shops and restaurants have you seen open and then close in relatively short order, even in the well frequented bits of the major cities? Yes, it must be a nightmare worrying about rents and wages but might it not just also be that there are too many of them?

What’s clear is that the old line about Australia being “Treasure Island” for UK based retailers simply doesn’t work any more.  There was a time maybe 10-15 years ago when those retailers could expect to pick up double the margin in Australia on approximately the same goods than they were netting at home.

But with international airfares being as cheap as they are, Australia’s no longer a captive market for clothing retailers, for instance. Young upwardly mobile types are of course the leaders in that area, some of them taking near-empty suitcases on leaving Australia.

They also seem to be the ones buying most goods online, to the quiet despair of the bricks and mortar brigade, although Myer has been serious about adopting the old “If you can’t beat ‘em” strategy. In its latest earnings report, it noted online sales of just over $262 million amid total revenue of $2.99 billion, so it’s close to 10% of the total.

Note also that Myer is aiming to push private label sales up from 17.8 to 20% of sales and that, most importantly, in the last year they cut $33 million out of their costs. This new CEO John King, a UK retailing veteran, is clearly making his presence felt, even if some measures are one-offs

But at the moment everyone’s talking about the Economy, which in itself is a bit of disincentive to consumers to go out and spend. Very clearly, there’s a lot of nervousness about, and quite rightly so. Just domestically, we’re being pulled in two directions.

We’ve never seen interest rates this low, which means the Reserve Bank’s got minimal wriggle room to stimulate the economy, at the same time as Treasurer Josh Frydenberg is trying to balance the books. There are tax cuts coming down the pipe but they’re not vast and their effect, while just around the corner, has yet to hit the numbers.

People with mortgages are very aware there’s much more likelihood in the long run of their repayments going up than down. Valuations are another issue: in most cities they have picked up in recent moths but they are still almost 10% below where they were a year ago.

That’s no big drama for people who bought more than a couple of years ago but it puts some recent purchasers in danger of having negative equity in their homes. There’s nothing like an attack of negative equity for cooling consumers’ spending urges.

In Australia, we’re almost all one of three types of householder, and two of them are being very careful. People who’ve paid off their mortgages are in the clear but some people are retiring with mortgages still around their necks.

Borrowers are pleased with low interest rates, which have cut the standard  mortgage rate to around 4.95% but worried that the Reserve Bank has put them in place to avoid a serious slowdown in the economy. For slowdown, read job losses.

Most renters, meanwhile, would like nothing better than to save up a deposit and buy a place, which ought to mean they go carefully on discretionary spending.

Conclusion? Tightly run retailers can still surprise on the upside but we’ll need a significant lift in consumer confidence (and maybe even some wage growth!) before they can really get the wind in their sails.

With Myer shares at around the 60 cent mark, they’re at least looking like the beginnings of a turnaround story.


Nothing could be finer than dividends from this miner

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Quick quiz: which successful and substantial Australian mining stock is enjoying a current yield of almost 16%, fully franked, and a current price earnings ratio of less than five times?

It’s Fortescue Metals, which has just beaten consensus forecasts for its full year performance by a solid margin, reduced net debt by a billion US dollars, diversified slightly away from its main iron ore product and increased its full  year dividend payout by just under 400%, from 23 cents to $1.14.

That dividend looks mighty generous compared to the last one but it’s still only 78% of profits, which is well within the envelope of customary dividend distribution among listed players in Australia.

CEO Elizabeth Gaines said that she fully planned to retain the policy of paying out between 50 and 80% of profits to shareholders, being quoted in the AFR as saying that “we think the dividend policy is definitely sustainable”.

We’re talking about a lift of almost 200% in Fortescue’s underlying net profit here, from just over $US1 billion to just under $US3.2 billion.

Oh, and the company’s share price dropped 40 cents or five per cent to $7.17 on Monday in the wake of the result, bouncing back to $7.55 yesterday once more rational thought was brought to bear.

What spooked the punters on Monday was the elephant in the room: the global price for iron ore.

Fortescue has, through no fault of its own, become a bet on what’s going to happen in the US-China trade war and right now it’s not looking that marvellous.

The 2018-9 year was a stellar year for Andrew Forrest’s one-time upstart disruptor, but the price for 62% iron ore on global markets has subsequently dropped from around $US120 a tonne to around $US82 a tonne.

And from all accounts the price isn’t showing any obvious signs of wanting to stop falling.

Part of it comes from the recovery in iron ore deliveries to China from Brazil in the wake of January’s Samarco dam disaster, bringing back some equilibrium to what had been an absolute seller’s market for Fortescue’s ore.

But most of the downward pressure on the iron ore price has to be a function of  the trade threats posed by the spat between US President Donald Trump and President Xi of China.

The results announcement contained a presentation in which Fortescue called itself a “core supplier to the Chinese market” in iron ore.

That’s a claim that unfortunately works two ways. In one way it’s great: China provided some 93% of Fortescue’s revenue in the year just ended.

But as long as the President of the US doesn’t have his Twitter account closed and the leader of the world’s fastest growing economy doesn’t suddenly surrender in the trade war, neither of which looks very probable, it becomes something of a liability.

Corporates aren’t too bad at estimating future prices for their goods but guessing what’s happening in Donald Trump’s mind is a higher order challenge altogether.

Even though Fortescue is shipping lower grade ore than what’s supplied by the likes of BHP and Rio, it’s still higher grade than what the Chinese can mine for themselves and incidentally, Fortescue has perhaps accidentally done one thing backwards.

It started out shipping lower grade iron ore, around 55% iron content, compared with the much higher quality or from BHP and Rio, but now Fortescue is enjoying shipping higher quality ore and is aiming now to blend ores from different mines to deliver ore that has a 60% Fe (iron) content.

It’s interesting to remember that Forrest got the whole thing going around 2000 by pegging all the ground he could in the Pilbara that BHP and Rio had concluded wasn’t worth bothering about, given the very high quality of what they were sitting on already.

It’s normal practice for miners to start out by shipping the highest quality product they can, then let the standard slip as they pay off debt and start to exploit the lower quality ore.

The market is assuming the worst about the likes of Fortescue, despite the fact that the company issued guidance on Monday to say that ore shipments in the current financial year will be between 170 and 175 million tonnes, compared to 167.7 million tonnes last year, with most other metrics showing a small improvement.

There’s another timing factor at work here, too, not that it is a negative for Fortescue. Let’s call it noise.

Treasurer Josh Frydenberg has only just put down the microphone after a clarion call to Australian corporates to hand out less of their profits in dividends, and to invest more.

That coincided with the news that Fortescue founder Andrew Forrest has just trousered $1.24 billion in fully franked dividends in consequence of the latest result, give that he owns just over 35% of the company.

That is almost certainly the first time anyone in Australia’s picked up more than $1 billion in dividend payments in one hit.

In fact Fortescue’s about to start work on a new mine called Elliwanna that will cost over $1 billion and is also going to do a joint venture with Formosa Steel of Taiwan and Baosteel of China to build a magnetite ore project called Iron Bridge.

That’s going to cost more than $2.5 billion and will employ 3,000 people during the four year construction stage, and around 900 people once it’s up and running.

All of which suggests that Fortescue’s well on the right side of the ledger with Josh Frydenberg’s campaign to get companies to invest, even if he might have had a bit of heartburn over the dividend payout.

All chairman Andrew Forrest and his CEO Elizabeth Gaines have to worry about now is Donald Trump.


Aurizon’s pulling its horns in and shareholders are happy

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Memo to corporate treasurers: if you want to keep shareholders happy, there’s nothing quite like an open ended share buyback, as shown this week by rail haulier Aurizon.

The company formerly known as QR National turned in an annual result that was down in every major respect, starting with a 15% drop in statutory net profit and concluding with a 12% cut in total annual dividend.

And the share market reaction? AZJ shares climbed 17 cents or almost 3% during trading on Monday to a new high of $5.96, where it stayed overnight. The stock price has had a solid run in the last 12 months, climbing 28% and that was before this week’s jump.

Management announced it would buy back up to $300 million worth of stock  over the next year on market, at prices and on dates of its own choosing.

They wouldn’t quite put it this way, but that proposal basically puts a floor under the stock.

In terms of reducing the company’s capital it’s pretty small beer: my calculations are that the company’s buying back 2.5% of its $1.99 billion capital.

But what it does say is that the company doesn’t want to do anything silly with spare capital, preferring instead to hand it back to shareholders.

That’s a significant plus because almost every time Aurizon has diversified away from its core business of hauling metallurgical coal around, it’s done less well.

To be fair to Aurizon, it also beat consensus estimates for its all-important underlying earnings before interest and tax (EBIT), coming in at $829 million against expectations of $799 million. That was despite the latest result being 12% below the previous year’s number of $941 million.

CEO Andrew Harding said on Monday that it’s decided not to split its “above rail” and “below rail” operations, following a year-long strategic review, preferring to restructure the two divisions so they each manage their own debt arrangements.

It had a number of regulatory and legal wins, most particularly a resolution in May of its UT5 dispute with the Queensland Competition Authority over how much it could charge the users of its rail network.

It also finally got a $20 million payment out of former client Clive Palmer in relation to haulage done for his Queensland Nickel operation. The bill he was sent was for $88 million but Aurizon had the whole sum carried as a bad debt, so it’s a win of sorts. To judge by recent courtroom action, getting a payment of any size out of Clive Palmer is something of an achievement.

I’ve got form with Aurizon, having written about it pre its 2010 float and noticed that it was far more popular with retail investors than institutions.

The float was subject to a bookbuild and it opened at $2.54, just a tad above the retail investors’ price of $2.45, against a background of professional investors saying it was going to be something of a dud.

It turned out that some of the darker muttering around the float had come from rival operator Asciano, which operated the Pacific National rail haulier. The latter was subsequently sold in August 2016 to a consortium of international pension funds after a complex takeover that provided clear evidence that global fund managers simply adore anything that even looks like a steady infrastructure play. It’s arguable whether it really is, given its history of hither-and-yon expansion, but they are welcome to that view.

While it’s no firecracker, the Mums and Dads who stayed aboard the train from float date have doubled their money, and I haven’t included dividends.

Those grew until this year at around 27% a year since the first skinny dividend of 0.037 cents in 2011, the latest being an effective annual dividend of 23.8 cents, down 12% from the FY18 level of 27.1 cents.

The company pays out 100% of its profits in dividends, which are 70% franked.

Which suggests that this company is really good to its shareholders, although it’s a worry that it is quite so lavish with its earnings.

So what’s the outlook for Aurizon? Mixed.

For a start, it lost two of its biggest shareholders, Unisuper and the Children’s Fund in the last six months. That may explain why the share price has kicked up sharply in recent weeks, post their exit, to new highs.

I understand they sold out for environmental reasons and there is not a lot a coal haulier can say to defend their position nowadays.

Aurizon started out almost exclusively hauling metallurgical coal, of the sort used to make steel around the world, from the Bowen basin to the Queensland coast.

The Sunshine State has the best quality met coal (also called coking coal) in the world, and although a lot of protesters don’t differentiate between different types of coal, the market certainly does.

And in simple terms, most big investors and banks understand the need for metallurgical coal but are less enamoured nowadays of steaming coal as used in electric power generation, and whose eventual demise keeps being predicted.

Aurizon’s problem is that nowadays it actually carries more steaming coal than metallurgical coal, by a ratio of 55 to 45%. Why?

Because the haulier expanded its operations into the Hunter Valley in New South Wales some years ago and most of the coal there is steaming coal, so Aurizon has basically cut off its ability to toot the whistle about its met coal core business.

And it’s fair to say there’s a major question mark hanging over steaming coal’s future, and with it, Aurizon’s chances of maintaining its coal tonnage numbers.

Fortunately Aurizon makes almost as much from running railway networks as running trains, which is a lot like the apocryphal entrepreneur in the California gold rush of 1849 who did much better than most of the miners, by selling  shovels.  

Conclusion? Aurizon may be entering a purple patch, as long as it doesn’t expand into unknown territory.


How high can our flying kangaroo soar?

Wednesday, July 31, 2019

I have long subscribed to Warren Buffett’s jest that the destruction of value over the decades in the global airline industry has been so bad that it might have been better to shoot down the Wright Brothers while they were testing their Wright Flyer biplane in North Carolina back in 1903.

Just think about it for a moment. How many things can go wrong for an airline? Global health scares, mutinous pilots, cabin staff and engineers, unhappy customers, accidents, terrorism, unreliable aircraft and of course fuel prices, just for starters. And how about disputes over airport access, late deliveries, international politicking using airlines as bargaining tools, and unfair competition from subsidised state airlines? The list of nightmare scenarios is a long one.

Not forgetting of course that in a high cost, low margin business, which is basically what airlines are, a bad management decision can tip an airline into the red in a matter of weeks.

Still curious? Not only does it now turn out that Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway now has significant holdings in the four major US airlines, but Qantas seems to have dodged almost all of those negative bullets in recent times.

And Australian investors are climbing over each other to buy stocks that aren’t on excessive price earnings ratios, have a relatively positive earnings outlook and a good history of fully franked dividends.

Patrick Hodgens, an ex-Macquarie bank fund manager who recently founded the Firetrail Investments group, was recently quoted as saying that if Virgin raised its airfares to remain competitive in the domestic market, Qantas would most likely match that move.

If that happened, he said, Qantas might be able to lift its earnings by up to 30%.

Hodgens subsequently addressed a presentation in Sydney last week at which he made his bullish sentiments on Qantas very clear, saying the stock was on less than nine times forward earnings.

“We value the stock at more than $10 a share,” he said.

He also noted how assiduous the company has been in buying back stock, pointing to the fact that according to the third quarter trading update, the company has bought back no less than 28% of its stock since 2015, with inevitable benefits for earnings per share.

The latest buyback, announced in February and completed in May, spent $305 million buying back just under 30 million shares, leaving capital of 1.59 billion shares. That’s a cut of more than 15% in the size of the cake, this calendar year alone.

The company paid shareholders an interim dividend of 12 cents a share  in March, fully franked.

Firetrail runs an absolute return fund and also a “High conviction” long-only fund, of which Qantas is clearly a constituent.

Hodgens is talking his book of course, and enjoyed teasing his audience by outlining its recent record and then challenging his audience to name the stock he was describing.

But he’s not alone in seeing an upbeat outlook for what we used to call our national carrier.

Most international airlines are on around 11 times, it would seem, and here we are with an airline that not only has a hammerlock in the domestic passenger business, but is starting to make earnings headway via its international alliances and operations.

Just adding to the list of dodged bullets, Qantas doesn’t have any Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft that have been so ostentatiously grounded following disastrous crashes of near-new aircraft, firstly in Indonesia in October last year, and then in Ethiopia in March.

Indeed Qantas CEO Alan Joyce was reported in June to have been ready to buy some 737 Max 8s to upgrade Qantas’ domestic fleet, so confident is he that Boeing can fix the software problem that has caused all the grief.

Qantas affiliate Jetstar is just as fortunate, having plumped for the relatively vice-free Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the equally safe Airbus A320 as the backbone of its fleet.

The brokers aren’t quite so positive on the stock. Of the six surveyed by FNArena, three are neutral, two have a buy on it and one has a sell.

The stock price certainly isn’t too demanding, sitting now at around $5.85 after hitting $6.87 a year ago. Concerns about fuel prices appear to be the big negative, although jet fuel prices haven’t kicked anything like as much as expected.

Morgan Stanley’s sitting on the fence but notes the frequent flyer loyalty programme could provide support for a re-rating, once there is broader support for the earnings profile.

Credit Suisse leans to outperformance, thanks partly to an expected lift in corporate travel demand now the Coalition has won the election, but most particularly because weaker rival Virgin Australia is looking to cut capacity.

And Macquarie leans exactly the opposite way, talking about revenue per seat kilometre growth being likely to ease as this new financial year rolls out.

Citi’s got it as a buy because the broker expects Qantas to have generated international growth of 6.1% in the half just ended. That compares with less inspiring domestic earnings numbers, producing an expected 5% overall drop in pretax profit in the result coming just around the corner.

Perhaps the biggest fillip to investor enthusiasm is a consensus view that the dividend will lift from 17 cents for the 2017-18 year to 23.7 cents for the latest year.

And while the consensus PE for the looming result is 10.1 times, an expected slight lift in earnings per share in the 2019-20 year should bring that back under the magic 10 mark to around 9.6 times.

The brokers collectively expect a modest growth in earnings per share from 56 cents last year to 57.1 in the year just ended, moving up to 60.1 cents for the current year.

Conclusion? The expected hike in fuel prices has not occurred, leaving Qantas shares looking a mite under-priced, if you think that situation will continue. And there aren’t a lot of under-priced blue chips around at the moment.


Don’t just sit on cash: if you do, you’re going backwards

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Do you despair of those unfortunates who turn up on the TV news and current affairs programmes bewailing some dire financial fate they have suffered?

I certainly do, although after hearing about the Gold Coast financial planner who put his entire savings into a Nigerian scam, I am beyond surprise.

This isn’t a complaint about the poor victims, it’s a grumble about how they got into that jam.

The capacity for people to mis-invest their hard-earned savings in one way or another, then turn up with a sad story, is a dispiriting business for the many of us who have spent years trying to save investors from their own folly. You know, diversify, increase your financial literacy and if an offering looks too good to be true, it probably is.

But the latest manifestation the other day was an elderly couple looking particularly glumly at the lousy interest rates they have been receiving on their term deposits at the bank. It looked suspiciously as though they had put ALL their spare capital in the bank.

That uninspiring circumstance certainly cannot have come as a bolt from a blue. The latest cut in official rates from 1.25% to 1% was the trigger for the story (on the ABC), but crikey, low deposit rates have been with us for a long time.

Bear in mind that until June 5 of this year when the rate came down to 1.25%, the Reserve Bank’s official rate had sat unmoved at 1.5% since 3 August 2016, or almost three years. To be pedantic, that meant 30 consecutive announcements with no move at all. To call low rates a surprising new phenomenon is a major stretch.

Conclusion: anyone in Australia who’s been sitting on anything more than a modest exposure to bank deposit rates, let’s say 15% of their savings assets to be generous, has been stoking a modest bonfire of value destruction.

I say that because even the current low annual rate of the Consumer Price Index, at less than 1.5%, is more than most banks are paying depositors.

As Peter Switzer has pointed out many times, Self Managed Super Funds in Australia are holding an average of more than 20% in cash.

Why? Maybe because they are cautious but certainly because it’s easy. It’s often a symptom of regular contributions and irregular investment decisions, basically.

It’s clearly time for those SMSF investors to start looking elsewhere for yield.

But where?

A recent article in the New York Times mentioned TINA, which stands for There Is No Alternative (to equities, in this case).

That’s a concern because the moment it looks as though there’s only one asset class worth investing in, which at this point appears to be the equity market, it’s going to be a seriously crowded trade.

So, be careful. Our share market is close to its all time high, which in the case of the ASX 200 index was 6828.7 set on 1 November 2007.

Often savers keeping doing whatever they were previously doing, in the face of clear evidence to suggest that’s not such a great idea. The irresistible force of inertia.

The big task for Australian retirement savers and retirees is to look closely at their asset allocation and ask themselves whether they are fully justified in having so much cash doing virtually nothing.

An allocation of 20% to cash is a massive ball and chain pulling down the performance of the other assets.

The next thing they should do is get some advice about which shares they should buy that have a solid earnings history and pay fully franked dividends. It’s easy to default to the banks, and right now they are running pretty hard in terms of a climbing share price, but even now they are paying retiree owners a yield of close to 10% a year by the time you include the benefits of franking.  That’s independent of capital growth, which of course cannot be relied on.

Unless the retirees have been living under a rock, they will know that if they aren’t earning enough to pay tax, they will still qualify for a refund of the tax already paid on those dividends. That’s because it was ALP policy to abolish those refunds and in the wake of the recent election loss, the ALP has abandoned that policy.

How good, to paraphrase our Prime Minister, is that? Dividend franking was essentially devised to help retirees and if they don’t take advantage of it, they only have themselves to blame.

But they shouldn’t just go for yield. That’s what stuffed the investors who went for high yielding debentures, put out by organisations with names like Banksia Securities. That one keeled over in 2012.

Some investors apparently thought it was a bank when it was actually a glorified solicitors’ mortgage fund based in a Victorian country town and named after a plant.

In this low interest environment, if anyone’s offering you more than 5% annual yield on an unlisted product, it may well be a lot further up the risk curve than it looks.

Higher yield has always meant higher risk, and nothing’s changed.


What’s the best way to invest in Aussie small caps?

Wednesday, June 05, 2019

While there are about 2,200 stocks listed on the Australian market, more than 95% of the value is made up of the top 200 stocks by market capitalisation.

That leaves a lot of tiddlers but there’s a case to be made for the Small Ordinaries, as the relevant market index is called. That “small cap” grouping is made up of stocks that are outside the Top 50 but which are among the top 300 stocks by value, or capitalisation.

There’s a lot to be said for buying a basket of small stocks, on the reasonable premise that even if one or two in 10 turn out to be duds, hopefully a bigger proportion will turn out to more than double their valuation over your holding period.

Why invest in small caps?

Note, by the way, that you don’t buy small cap stocks for their dividend: you buy them for capital growth. Most of them are in the growth phase, or what they call the growth phase, and they squirrel most of their modest free cash back into the company rather than paying dividends.

After all, if you hold a blue chip like BHP, it’s unlikely to double in value from say $35 to $70 any time soon, but there are lots of small cap stocks that manage strong growth and which can often run up (quadruple) from say 50 cents to $2 a share.

What are the risks?

That’s the good news: the bad news is that smaller cap stocks are harder to follow than the majors, as they don’t get much media coverage.

They are also less liquid than the blue-chip stocks. That is a risk to any passive Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) focussed in that area, as ETF managers have to buy and sell stocks regularly to maintain the correct weightings in their fund. If they can’t, they run into what is called Alpha Risk, which is where the basket no longer represents what its managers said it would represent: too much of one stock and/or not enough of another.

That’s the risk in passive small cap ETFs but we’re beginning to see the emergence of active small cap ETFs (including our own, ASX:IMPQ), which have a broader remit than just following an index.

They’re not as cheap to manage as passive funds, which do just follow indices, but they do have the significant advantage that a well-informed active ETF manager can screen out suspect stocks and focus on the ones that he or she thinks have the best growth potential.

This article is the opinion of the author, Andrew Main, and is not financial advice. Speak to your financial adviser or broker for more information. Don’t forget to always read the Product Disclosure Statement (PDS) for the active ETF you are invested in. To find out more and download the PDS, please visit


Is it time to buy bank shares?

Thursday, May 30, 2019

You could be forgiven for having stood on the sidelines recently wondering whether to buy shares in the big Australian banks, but some of the planets are starting to line up on the positive side.

Seldom in the past few decades have banks been as much under the gun as they were in the Hayne Royal Commission, and rightly so, as it turned out.

So, looking forward, is this a good or a bad thing?

That depends on two things: one, just how much reparation are they going to have to shell out and two, have they learned their lesson?

I’d stick my neck out and say that some of the class actions by people complaining that the banks underestimated their outgoings are a bit hopeful, for instance. If they got carted out that’s a shame but what happened to the doctrine of personal responsibility? The borrower’s equivalent of caveat emptor?

The number of people who went bad after their loan applications were incorrectly filled in is just a fraction of the number who repaid their loan as required.

As far as learning a lesson is concerned, nothing focuses a banker’s mind so much as having to pay out millions of dollars to atone for sins past. They spent a while behaving like rabbits in the headlights and now they’re starting to work it out.

Until the Election, it was almost a default position for the mainstream media to write articles imposing sackcloth and ashes on the banks, given the egregious behaviour uncovered in terms of charging dead people for advice et cetera.

But the banks’ outlook has brightened since then, thanks to a couple of imminent measures and a near certain drop in interest rates at the next RBA meeting on June 4.

The most dramatic effect was on Monday May 20, the first trading day after the election, when the entire banking sector staged a rally of close to 10%.

That wasn’t the result of a lightning reappraisal of the banks’ medium-term outlook, it was the result of a mad scramble by short sellers to cover.

It was fun for existing shareholders to see, for instance, Westpac jump more than 10% in two days, most of that as soon as the market opened after the election. It didn’t feel like the real world but by and large those prices have held since.

Why do we love bank shares? Let me count some of the ways.

One, in letters of fire, is the benefit of fully franked dividends. That for instance turns NAB’s 7% dividend yield into a grossed up 10%, a return you would be nuts to go past if you are a “buy and hold” investor, which is what most of us are despite claims to the contrary.

And as we learned at the Election, Labor’s defeat means it will be at least three years, if not more, before the notion of abolishing franking refunds for zero taxpayers ever comes up again.

Two, and this is more controversial, we love them because lots of Mums and Dads love them (as in, see above), and because they make up such a big element of our market.

That means investors rush the banks because everyone else is rushing them, which isn’t actually a justification but it does mean the Trend is your Friend.

At the moment, financial stocks represent just over 30% by value of the ASX200, which in turn represent over 80% of the overall share market by valuation. The next biggest category, Mining stocks, is only just over half the size at 18.3%.

Next, APRA has decided to relax the requirement that new mortgage borrowers should be able to service an interest rate of 7%, well above current levels. That has to help new lending and it’s the banks that have been agitating for a cut.

The banks’ fortunes will as usual be dependent on home lending, and it’s interesting to note that the auction clearance rate in Sydney jumped last weekend to 69.9%, the highest rate since April last year, and the national average was 62.6%.

The property brigade reckon anything above 50% represents a stable market, but on a less bullish note it’s also clear that we haven’t yet experienced the full washup for the overall 10% drop in Melbourne and Sydney property prices over the last 12 months. Mortgage stress has not yet turned into loan delinquency but you’d be a fool to suggest it won’t.

The Morrison Government’s proposal to replace mortgage insurance for some 100,000 first home buyers with a commitment to underwrite the difference between first home buyers’ 5% deposit and lenders’ requirement for 20% is another move that looks exciting at first glance.

But it remains to be seen how motivated the banks will be to welcome first home buyers who are going to have to borrow not 80% but 95% of the property price.

I’d put that down as a neutral factor since, underwritten or not, we don’t want to see banks’ bad loan percentages climbing to any measurable degree.

The bankers might like to have potential losses reimbursed but they would prefer not to endure the losses in the first place.

What other negative factors are there out there?

Failure to maintain the dividend is the biggest bogey.

The banks already have a high payout ratio at around 82% and, given profits are likely to ease in the short term  because of remediation costs and other rationalisations, they may be tempted to pay out an even higher percentage.

Choosing between a higher payout ratio and cutting the dividend looks an uncomfortable prospect, to be frank, so there may be another shoe to drop there.

Where are the banks going to find new sources of profit?

Aside from new home lending, that’s a hard one. They’re all ready for the looming drop in interest rates, with the official rate likely to drop to 1.25% on Tuesday June 4, but the big question is, where will they get cheap finance?

Our wobbly dollar isn’t helping them with any chance of raising funding offshore.

Our 10-year bond rate is now at 1.7% but the US equivalent rate is now 2.2%, so there won’t be a lot of bargains there.

Our Bank Bill Swap Rate (rate at which banks lend to each other) most recently dropped from 1.65% to 1.56%, which infers cheaper funding locally, plus of course bank deposits are substantial despite the miserly rate of interest they pay…and getting more miserly.

If the banks can maintain a 200-basis point margin on their home lending they will be doing very well, but there are no guarantees on that score. Put simply, if everything goes well they should be able to maintain margins, but maybe not grow them.

Conclusion: as a long-term bet the banks are probably a safe place to go but don’t go chasing them: there are some breezy headwinds looming in the medium term in areas such as dividend maintenance and finding new sources of profitability.


What’s the “fair dinkum” lowdown on power?

Thursday, May 16, 2019

I never thought I’d be feeling sorry for the big energy companies but the Morrison government’s policy of painting them as villains looks likely to backfire very noisily.

That’s assuming the Coalition is still in power after this weekend, which seems less than a 50-50 possibility.

My gas industry spies say that the electric power providers of the scale of Energy Australia have basically decided not to invest any money in gas-powered electricity generation until they get a bit more certainty. It sounds weird but they appear to be expecting to have a better relationship with a Labor government.

And as the power generation picture stands at the moment, there is a big enough time gap looming at the moment, say around 20 years, between the time we really start to phase out coal, and can bring in fully despatchable renewable power, such that gas fired “peaking” power can still play a role.

Gas turbines are much quicker to fire up than coal-fired boilers and can step in when demand is strong and until we get battery storage completely sorted, renewables can’t make up the difference.

Yes, gas produces CO2 emissions but they are one third as much as the equivalent emissions from coal-fired generation.

There are a myriad reasons for this caution among the energy companies but you could start by looking at a couple of proposals from the Morrison government that smack more of the Fidel Castro model of government than anything more evolved.

To whit, two serious attacks of interventionism, and we’re not even going near the “big stick” threats aimed at supposed price gouging by the major suppliers.

One is the proposal to spend many billions of taxpayer dollars on 4,000 megawatts’ worth of new power generation, source so far unspecified, in a bid to bring power prices down. That’s the equivalent of about one and a half coal-fired power stations.

You might remember the phrase “fair dinkum power” that Scott Morrison coined and has been the subject of some satire since.

Bear in mind that in the face of clear evidence that the cheapest new source of electric generation in Australia will be solar, there are Coalition supporters in Queensland demanding a new coal-fired power station.

They are pretty much led by Liberal National Party Senator, Matt Canavan, who if you don’t mind is a mineral economist.

The second proposal, introduced last week, is to introduce a “wholesale price target” aimed at making sure major users of electricity don’t let the bulk price of electricity exceed $70 per megawatt hour by the end of 2021.

The Coalition’s Federal Energy Minister, Angus Taylor, again is a person who should know better than to say some of the things he’s said, such as about CO2 emissions not having risen, when in fact they have.

Last week he told a NSW Business Chamber meeting that the 4,000 megawatt proposal will “put the big energy companies on notice” and that they will know “you either get us to that price of below $70 per megawatt hour or we will use those (policy) levers to get us there.”

The good news for consumers is that the wholesale price is expected to go down slightly in the coming years.

Mr Taylor’s opposite number, Mark Butler, noted that even without the dumped National Energy Guarantee (NEG), the government’s modelling had projected wholesale prices of around $48 per megawatt hour anyway.

The irony of all this is that according to experts, Liberal icon John Howard had a good Emissions Trading Scheme proposal in 2007 which, had it been adopted, would have been better than anything we’ve seen in the 12 years (yes 12) since.

Kevin Rudd, the Greens and then Tony Abbott ended up jinxing that proposal before it came to life.

Once elected in the Ruddslide of 2007, Rudd was apparently more interested in politics than policy, which meant tormenting his then opponent Malcolm Turnbull. The Greens meanwhile voted it down because they said it didn’t go far enough, proving that the perfect can indeed be the enemy of the good.

You don’t need an explanation of Tony Abbott’s views.

So what’s actually happening now in terms of gas-powered electricity?

Just looking at the major markets of the East Coast and South Australia, it’s a case of “not dead, only sleeping.”

In terms of drilling, it’s depressing. Queensland is exporting most of its conventional gas as LNG, via the various Curtis island trains near Gladstone, leaving overseas processors to make more of the profits.

New South Wales has a marked gas deficit but, because of protests, the only live exploration project is the Santos operation near Narrabri. Pretty well all others have been banned but Santos at least is selling gas forward now, which is a promising sign. AGL is talking about importing natural gas, which ought to be laughable if they weren’t serious. It’s widely believed there’s enough gas under Eastern Australia to keep us all going for at least 200 years.

And in Victoria, onshore gas drilling of any sort, never mind fracking, is banned.

What about new gas-fired power? Energy Australia had been looking in NSW to expand its Tallawarrah plant near Port Kembla, as well as planning a new plant at Marulan, half way between Sydney and Canberra.

But apparently it has spiked the Marulan project for the time being and notes that if the Federal Government forces AGL to keep its old Liddell coal-fired station past its planned closure date of 2022, the investment case for gas expansion would collapse.

Gas consultancy Energy Quest notes that over the last three years gas-powered electricity generation has grown by 19.7% in South Australia and 61.8% in Victoria, while at the same time production has dropped sharply in Queensland (down 68.6%) and New South Wales (down 73%).

Energy Quest also notes that if Liddell closes in 2022 as AGL has planned, that would turn things around sharply for gas-powered generation in New South Wales.

As you can see, there are a lot of moving parts to the gas-fired electricity caper but one of the biggest obstacles to its expansion would be building a new coal fired station, thus emitting more than twice as much CO2 per unit of electricity generated, or keeping Liddell open past 2022.

It doesn’t look as though logic gets much of a look-in in Government thinking at the moment.



Warren Buffett says conventional newspapers are “toast”

Doing away with mortgage broker commissions is “absolute rubbish”

Has Wesfarmers boss, Rob Scott, seen something in Lynas that the rest of us haven’t?

Which way is the price of petrol heading?

Is our biggest coal miner’s cap on production pure self interest?

Woolworths One, Coles Nil

The Hayne Report – another wet lettuce?

Don’t expect miracles

Three investing rules for 2019

Why don’t people ask more questions?

Quit the ‘sorry’, just do your job

Are our big banks in a financial jam?

Midnight oil

When is an independent report truly independent?

Is AMP a buy yet?

Should Bill Shorten take away tax rebates for retirees?

Super fund execs ready themselves for commission roasting

Why did Westpac pull out of SMSF lending for properties?

Are the banks a buy yet?

Let the games begin: Gina takes on Twiggy in battle for Atlas

Questions remain as bank chief executives face criminal cartel charges

Royal commission: Business lending under scrutiny

The future of the advice caper

We needed a Royal Commission earlier

The reality of our stalled super contribution

Could Labor's tax plan push us onto the pension?

What was behind Blackmore's fall?

What a US doomsday 'expert' has revealed about Australia

IPOs the big winners of 2017

BlackRock CEO calls for social responsibility

The big issues facing SMSF trustees in 2018

Industry funds face spotlight in Royal Commission

We don't actually need a bank inquiry as we know all that!

Janus Henderson - Bastard child comes good

What’s Solomon Lew’s game with Myer?

Private health insurance changes - snake oil or miracle cure?

Facing up to our gas shortage woes

Should you be looking to buy Myer shares?

Ardent Leisure takes step in right direction

BHP creeps back into fashion

Coca-Cola loses fizz as Woolies gives Mount Franklin varieties the can

Has Flight Centre's share price already flown?

Metcash surprises short sellers

Aussie car dealers hit by slowing sales

Is the price right for Fairfax?

ANZ lifts first-half cash profit by 23%: Is it a buy?

Teoh’s brave mobile play: Is TPG a buy?

Quintis not out of the woods yet

Can Kathmandu climb higher?

Are more leisurely times ahead for Ardent?

BHP bounces back to profit, boosts dividend

Toll and traffic growth drive Transurban profit

Shriro could snag sales with celebrity BBQ range

Gold has tanked, so what next for Perseus?

Can Bellamy's be nursed back to good health?

Is Apollo Tourism and Leisure a buy?

Hazelwood closure: A transition to renewables?

Is Healthscope a buy?

Battered up telcos: Hold the phone for TPG and Vocus?

Aged care stocks hit after government policy changes

James Hardie cements its market dominance

Will Fairfax keep its growing Domain?

Will Nintendo catch profits with Pokemon Go?

Austal contract hits choppy waters

Is Metcash ready for a new sensation?

Is IAG in a storm?

Is it time to short the big banks?